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EIAgen Tetanus Toxin IgG

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Tetanus

brief description

Clostridia are anaerobic spore-forming gram-positive bacilli whose pathogenicity depends on the release of highly destructive enzymes or powerful exotoxins. Clostridium tetani is ubiquitous present in the soil and in the faeces of varius animals and produces (among others) the potent neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is released by autolysis. Hence, tetanus develop syndromes only when spores of Clostridium tetani germinate under strict anaerobic conditions after gaining access to wounds and small lacerations. Ingestion of bacteria or growth in the intestine of man or animal is without harm. Tetanospasmin is an extremely toxic agent still causing death in 50% of infected patients. In Europe tetanus mainly occurs after injuries and sometimes postoperative whereas in developing countries Tetanus neonatorum is widely disseminated causing death in up to 10% of live births. Tetanus toxin is an excellent immunogen in man - only one antigenic type of toxin. the only effective way to control tetanus is by prophylactic active immunization with formol toxoid. Symptoms of tetanus are severe and painful spasms and rigidity of voluntary muscles, followed by cardiac, renal and circulatory failure. Pathogenicity is solely dependent on the neurotoxin: both subunits enter the neurons by endo-cytosis and are retrogardely transported to the spinal cord. Here a channel through the vescicular membrane is formed by the bigger subunit allowing the smaller one to pass into the cytoplasm of the neuron. Interaction of the smaller unit with synaptic vesicles inhibits the exocytosis of transmitters. Infection may be identified by microscopy (gram stain, malachite green stain of spores - "tennis racket"-) or serology (detection of toxin production by ELISA).

intended use

The EIAgen TETANUS TOXIN IgG kit is an Enzyme-immunoassay for the quantitative determination of IgG antibodies to Clostridium tetani toxin in human serum.

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